Footnotes

1. From Quit Group site: http://www.quit.org.nz/19/reasons-to-quit/how-smoking-harms-your-body. Retrieved 15 November 2015. Developed by Quit Victoria.

2. http://www.quit.org.nz/file/publications/he1109-time-to-quit-copy.pdf

3. http://www.webmd.com/smoking-cessation/understanding-nicotine-withdrawal-symptoms

4. http://www.quit.org.nz/file/publications/he1109-time-to-quit-copy.pdf

5. Ministry of Health. (2004). Looking upstream: Causes of death cross-classified by risk and condition, New Zealand 1997. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

6. Tobias, M., & Turley, M. (2005). Causes of death classified by risk and condition, New Zealand 1997. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 29, 5-12.

7. Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J., & Thun, M. (2006). Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2005 (or later) (Updated March 2012). Retrieved 2 August 2015 from www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/~tobacco/

8. Banks, E., Joshy, G., Weber, M.F., Liu, B., Grenfell, R., Eggers, S., et al. (2015). Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality in a large Australian cohort study: Findings from a mature epidemic with current low smoking prevalence. BMC Medicine, 13, 38.

9. Vineis, P., Alavanja, M., Buffler, P., Fontham, E., Franceschi, S., Gao, Y.T., et al. (2004). Tobacco and cancer: Recent epidemiological evidence. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 96: 99-106.; Jha, P., Ramasundarahettige, C., Landsman, V., Rostron, B., Thun, M., Anderson, R. N., et al. (2013). 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 341-350.

10. Water Safety New Zealand. (2014). 2013 New Zealand drowning report. Retrieved 20 July 2015 from http://www.drownbase.org.nz/assets/Annual-Drowning-Reports/2013-New-Zealand-Drowning-Report.pdf

11. Ministry of Health. (2015). Mortality 2012 online tables. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/mortality-2012-online-tables

12. Ministry of Health. (2015). Mortality 2012 online tables. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/mortality-2012-online-tables

13. Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Boreham, J., & Thun, M. (2006). Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2005 (or later) (Updated March 2012). Retrieved 2 August 2015 from www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/~tobacco/

14. Ministry of Health. (2004). Looking upstream: Causes of death cross-classified by risk and condition, New Zealand 1997. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

15. Laugesen, M. (2000). Tobacco statistics 2000. Wellington: Cancer Society of New Zealand; Vineis, P., Alavanja, M., Buffler, P., Fontham, E., Franceschi, S., Gao, Y.T., et al. (2004). Tobacco and cancer: Recent epidemiological evidence. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 96: 99-106; Ministry of Health. (2005). Tobacco facts 2005. Wellington: Ministry of Health; Quit Victoria. (n.d.). How does smoking affect your body? Retrieved 11 October 2015 from http://www.quit.org.nz/19/reasons-to-quit/how-smoking-harms-your-body

16. Wilson, G., Field, A., Wilson, N. (2001). Smoke gets in your eyes: smoking and visual impairment in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 114:471-4.

17. http://www.quit.org.nz/23/reasons-to-quit/smoking-and-pregnancy

18. https://auckland-northland.cancernz.org.nz/en/reducing-cancer-risk/what-you-can-do/smoking-and-cancer/smoking-and-cancer/whats-in-a-cigarette/

19. World Health Organization. (2014). Fact sheet on ingredients in tobacco products. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.who.int/tobacco/industry/product_regulation/factsheetingredients/en/

20. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. (2014). Designed for addiction. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/what_we_do/industry_watch/product_manipulation/2014_06_19_DesignedforAddiction_web.pdf

21. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). A review of human carcinogens. Personal habits and indoor combustions. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 100(E).

22. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. (2014). Designed for addiction. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/what_we_do/industry_watch/product_manipulation/2014_06_19_DesignedforAddiction_web.pdf

23. DiFranza, J.R. (2012). Nicotine confesses: “It’s not you. It’s me.” Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.lulu.com/shop/joseph-r-difranza-md-and-amberlynn-narvie/nicotine-confesses-its-not-you-its-me/ebook/product-20015455.html

24. Royal College of Physicians. (2000). Nicotine addiction in Britain. London: Royal College of Physicians.

25. https://teens.drugabuse.gov/educators/nida-teaching-guides/mind-over-matter-teaching-guide-and-series/tobacco-addiction/how-does;

26. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nicotine4.htm

27. Based on 2017 taxation increased as at 1 January. Sales data from online sources and is an average of a pack of 20 cigarette.

28. Quit Victoria. (n.d.). How does smoking affect your body? Retrieved 11 October 2015 from http://www.quit.org.nz/19/reasons-to-quit/how-smoking-harms-your-body

29. International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2002). Passive smoking: A summary of the evidence, May 2004. France: IARC.

30. Woodward, A., & Laugesen, M. (2001). Morbidity attributable to second-hand cigarette smoke in New Zealand. Report to the Ministry of Health. Wellington: Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine.

31. Fergusson, D (2015). Christchurch Health and Development Study: Overview of 40 Years of Findings (2015). Accessed from http://www.superu.govt.nz/news-and-events/christchurch-health-and-development-study-overview-40-years-findings

32. Ibid

33. Samet, J.M. (1999). Synthesis: The health effects of tobacco smoke exposure on children. Department of Epidemiology. School of Hygiene and Public Health, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.; Law, K.L., Stroud, L.R., LaGasse, L.L., Niaura, R., Liu, J., Lester, B.M. (2003). Smoking during pregnancy and new-born neurobehaviours. Paediatrics, 111(6), 1318-1323.

34. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

35. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

36. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

37. Statistics New Zealand. (2013). Quitting and not starting – Smoking in New Zealand decreases. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/data-tables/totals-by-topic-mr2.aspx

38. http://www.tcdata.org.nz/Census%20data/Census_13.aspx. Retrieved 15 November 2015

39. Ministry of Health. New Zealand Health Survey (2006/07 – 2014/15) data tables

40. Laugesen, M. (2015). Tobacco returns for the 2014 calendar year. Analysis of manufacturers’ returns on tobacco. Report to the Ministry of Health for 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2016 from https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/pages/tobacco-returns-2014-analysis-report.pdf

41. Ibid

42. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

43. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

44. Action on Smoking and Health. (2014). 2014 factsheet 1: ASH year 10 snapshot survey: Topline results. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/F1-General-Topline.pdf

45. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

46. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

47. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

48. Ibid

49. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

50. http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/people_and_communities/pacific_peoples/pacific-progress-health/influences-on-health-well-being.aspx

51. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

52. Statistics New Zealand. (2014). Smoking in New Zealand: 2013/14 New Zealand Census. Auckland: Action on Smoking and Health.

53. Ministry of Health. (2015). Report on maternity, 2012. Wellington: Ministry of Health

54. Ministry of Health (2013). SUDI Statistics 2006-2010. Wellington: Ministry of Health

55. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

56. Ministry of Health. (2015). Annual Update of Key Results 2014/15: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

57. Action on Smoking and Health. (2014). 2014 factsheet 1: ASH year 10 snapshot survey: Topline results. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/F1-General-Topline.pdf. http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Pacific-Smoking-2013-14.pdf

58. Health Promotion Agency (2012). Youth Insights Survey Results.

59. White, J. (2015). In fact: Young people’s desires and attempts to stop smoking – 2014. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency Research and Evaluation Unit.

60. Health Sponsorship Council. (2005). Framework for reducing smoking initiation in Aotearoa-New Zealand. Wellington: HSC.

61. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Youth and Tobacco Use. Accessible from www.cdc.gov/tobacco

62. Health Sponsorship Council. (2005). Framework for reducing smoking initiation in Aotearoa-New Zealand. Wellington: HSC.

63. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General.

64. Action on Smoking and Health. (2014). 2014 factsheet 1: ASH year 10 snapshot survey: Topline results. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/F1-General-Topline.pdf. http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Pacific-Smoking-2013-14.pdf

65. Action on Smoking and Health. (2014). 2014 factsheet 1: ASH year 10 snapshot survey: Topline results. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from http://www.ash.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/F1-General-Topline.pdf

66. NZ Health Survey 2014/15

67. World Health Organization (2012). WHO global report: mortality attributable to tobacco. Accessible from http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/rep_mortality_attributable/en/

68. World Health Organization (2012). WHO global report: mortality attributable to tobacco. Accessible from http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/surveillance/rep_mortality_attributable/en/

69. http://www.who.int/tobacco/economics/en/

70. Māori Affairs Select Committee Inquiry Report. P. 11. Accessible from http://www.parliament.nz/en-nz/pb/sc/documents/reports/49DBSCH_SCR4900_1/inquiry-into-the-tobacco-industry-in-aotearoa-and-the-consequences

71. Javitz, H.S, Zbikowski, S.M, Swan, G.E, & Jack, L.M. (2006). Financial burden of tobacco use: an employer’s perspective. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine 5(1), 9–29.

72. Wilson, N., Edwards, R., & Parry, R. (2011). A persisting secondhand smoke hazard in urban public places: results from fine particulate (PM2. 5) air sampling. Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 124(1330).

73. Wilson, N., Thomson, G., & Edwards, R. (2007). Lessons from Hong Kong and other countries for outdoor smokefree areas in New Zealand? Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 120(1257).

74. ASH New Zealand. 2014. UMR omnibus survey on smoking issues level of agreement. (From Smokefree Cars Toolkit: https://aspire2025.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/smokefree-cars-toolkit.pdf

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