Footnotes

1. Quit Victoria. (n.d.). What happens when you quit? Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.quit.org.au/articles/how-reverse-health-effects-smoking/

2. Ministry of Health. (2004). Looking upstream: Causes of death cross-classified by risk and condition, New Zealand 1997. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

3. Tobias, M., & Turley, M. (2005). Causes of death classified by risk and condition, New Zealand 1997. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 29, 5-12.

4. Banks, E., Joshy, G., Weber, M.F., Liu, B., Grenfell, R., Eggers, S., et al. (2015). Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality in a large Australian cohort study: Findings from a mature epidemic with current low smoking prevalence. BMC Medicine, 13, 38.

5. Vineis, P., Alavanja, M., Buffler, P., Fontham, E., Franceschi, S., Gao, Y.T., et al. (2004). Tobacco and cancer: Recent epidemiological evidence. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 96: 99-106.; Jha, P., Ramasundarahettige, C., Landsman, V., Rostron, B., Thun, M., Anderson, R. N., et al. (2013). 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 341-350.

6. Water Safety New Zealand. (2021). Drowning Report. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://drowningreport2021.watersafety.org.nz/

7. Ministry of Health. (2021, October 4). Suicide web tool. Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/suicide-web-tool

8. Te Manatu Waka - Ministry of Transport. (2022). Safety — Road deaths. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.transport.govt.nz/statistics-and-insights/safety-road-deaths/ 

9. Ministry of Health. (2021a). Health effects of smoking. Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/healthy-living/addictions/quitting-smoking/health-effects-smoking#:~:text=Around%205000%20people%20die%20each 

10. Laugesen, M. (2000). Tobacco statistics 2000. Wellington: Cancer Society of New Zealand; Vineis, P., Alavanja, M., Buffler, P., Fontham, E., Franceschi, S., Gao, Y.T., et al. (2004). Tobacco and cancer: Recent epidemiological evidence. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 96: 99-106; Ministry of Health. (2005). Tobacco facts 2005. Wellington: Ministry of Health; Quit Victoria. (n.d.). What happens when you quit? Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.quit.org.au/articles/how-reverse-health-effects-smoking/

11. Wilson, G., Field, A., Wilson, N. (2001). Smoke gets in your eyes: smoking and visual impairment in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 114:471-4.

12. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://quit.org.nz/reasons-to-quit/smoking-and-pregnancy

13. Action on Smoking and Health (ASH). What is in a cigarette. 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from https://ash.org.uk/resources/view/whats-in-a-cigarette

14. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. (2014). Designed for addiction. Retrieved 22 July 2015 from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/what_we_do/industry_watch/product_manipulation/2014_06_19_DesignedforAddiction_web.pdf

15. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2012). A review of human carcinogens. Personal habits and indoor combustions. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 100(E).

16. ASH. (n.d.). Harm Reduction and Vaping. ASH NZ. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.ash.org.nz/vaping-and-harm-reduction 

17. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2020, April 22). Parents & Educators. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://nida.nih.gov/research-topics/parents-educators 

18. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: http://science.howstuffworks.com/nicotine4.htm

19. Based on 2023 price inflation increase as at 1 January. Sales data from online sources and is an average of a pack of 20 cigarettes.

20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects/index.htm

21. Woodward, A., & Laugesen, M. (2001). Morbidity attributable to second-hand cigarette smoke in New Zealand. Report to the Ministry of Health. Wellington: Department of Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/morbidity-attributable-second-hand-cigarette-smoke-new-zealand 

22. Bearer CF. (2005) Environmental health hazards: How children are different from adults. The Future of Children. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1518896/ 

23. Law, K.L., Stroud, L.R., LaGasse, L.L., Niaura, R., Liu, J., Lester, B.M. (2003). Smoking during pregnancy and new-born neurobehaviours. Paediatrics, 111(6), 1318-1323. Retreived 13 October 2022 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12777547 

24. ASH Scotland (2012). Reducing Children’s Exposure to Second Hand Smoke in the Home. Retrieved 13 October from: https://www.ashscotland.org.uk/media/197686/lit%20review%20final%20update%2081112.pd

25. Cancer Council Victoria. Tobacco in Australia. Health effects of secondhand smoke on pets. Retrieved 5 July 2019 from: https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-4-secondhand/4-20-health-effects-secondhand-smoke-on-pets 

26. Matt, G.E. Quintana, P.J.E. Hovell, M.F. Bernert, J.T. Song, S. Novianti, N. Juarez, T. Floro, J. Gehrman, C. Garcia, M. Larson, S. (2004) Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Tobacco Control; 13:29–37. Retrieved Nov 2018 from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1747815/pdf/v013p00029.pdf 

27. Ministry of Health. (2021). Annual Update of Key Results 2020/21: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. 

28. 2018 Census data. Retrieved 26 November 2019 from https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/smoking-is-a-dying-habit 

29. Ministry of Health. New Zealand Health Survey (2006/07 – 2017/18) data tables 

30. Ministry of Health. (2020). Annual Update of Key Results 2019/20: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. 

31. Action for Smokefree 2025 (ASH). 2022. ASH Year 10 Snapshot Survey 2021: Regular smoking and regular vaping. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: http://ash.org.nz 

32. Ministry of Health. (2014). Tobacco use 2012/13. NZ Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. 

33. Ministry of Health. (2018). Annual Update of Key Results 2017/18: New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

34. Ministry of Health (2013). SUDI Statistics 2006-2010. Wellington: Ministry of Health 

35. Te Whatu Ora/Health Promotion Agency. (2019). Second-hand smoke exposure among 14 and 15-year-olds: Results from the 2018 Youth Insights Survey. Wellington, NZ: Te Hiringa Hauora.

36. Health Sponsorship Council. (2005). Framework for reducing smoking initiation in Aotearoa-New Zealand. Wellington: HSC. 

37. Retrieved 13 October 2022 from: https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/ 

38. Action on Smoking and Health. (2019). 2018 factsheet 1: ASH year 10 snapshot survey: Topline results. Retrieved 15 April 2019 from: https://assets.nationbuilder.com/ashnz/pages/200/attachments/original/1635822503/2018_ASH_Y10_Snapshot_Topline_smoking.pdf?1635822503

39. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. 

40. Te Whatu Ora/Health Promotion Agency. (2021). Tobacco Control Data Repository (TCDR). Retrieved 20 April 2021 from: https://tcdata.org.nz/YIS%20data/YIS_15.html 

41. BMJ Journals, Tobacco Control, April 2015 - Volume 24 - Suppl 2. Retrieved from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/24/Suppl_2 

42. Gurram, N., & Martin, G. (2019). Disparities in age of smoking initiation and transition to daily smoking in New Zealand. Wellington: Health Promotion Agency.

Page last updated: 30 Jan 2023